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Telecommunications networks are hierarchy organization. House and commerce access is based on wireless and wireline, wireless networks include 2G, 3G, 4G and WiFi, and wireline splitter optical 1x16 technologies are those fiber point-to-point (P2P), point-to-multipoint passive optical networks (PONs), copper twisted pair, HFC (hybrid fiber coaxial) technologies.
Passive optical networks are the basis of Optical Access Networks (OANs) as defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.902, and also of hybrid fiber coaxial networks. PONs are often configured in tree or bus structures. Feeder and distribution fibers, together with the distribution elements in the outside plant, are referred to as Optical Distribution Network (ODN). The different degrees of optical versus electrical access down to the customers for the different fiber-to-the-X(FTTX) access scenarios, where X stands for cabinet (Cab), curb (C), building (B), or home (H). The reference points for the OAN are the service network interface (SNI) and the user network interface (UNI). They are defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.983. The network architecture used to build a PON based FTTx network will typically comply with international standards.
The main PON components include just like, OLT which its full name is Optical line termination and service provider head end in CO, and Remote node just called RN , it mostly passive, containing splitter/combiner or filter, for example, in cabinets, then ONU, it is optical network unit where at customer premises (CP), or in cabinet, etc.
AG.983 compliant PON typically consists of an optical line termination (OLT), which is located at the IPTV data center and a number of optical network terminals (ONTs), which are installed at the end users premises. Note that ONTs May also be installed at different neighborhoods where the optical fiber terminates. In these situations, high speed copper data transfer technologies such as DSL are used to carry the IPTV signals into the end-users’ household.
The OLT uses components such as fiber cable and optical splitters to route network traffic to the ONTs.
Fiber cable, the OLT and the various ONT’s are interconnected by fiber optic cabling. With few transmission losses, low interference, and high bandwidth potential, optical fiber is an almost ideal transmission medium. The core of the fiber optic cable is made of glass and carries data in the form of light wave signals. The diameter of the fiber cable is relatively small and is designed to allow network engineers splice the cable at various locations along the physical route. The purity of today’s glass fiber, combined with improved system electronics in the cable, permits the transmission of high speed services over long distances. In fact, the G.983 standard allows the PON to carry digitized light signals up to a maximum distance of 20 km without amplification.
Optical splitters, the optical splitter are used to split a single optical signal into multiple signals. It achieves this function while not altering the state of the signal; in other words, it does not convert it to electrical pulses. Optical splitters are also used to merge multiple optical signals back into a single optical. These splitters allow up to 32 households to share the FTTx network bandwidth and are typically housed in accessible mechanical closures.
In PONs, several customers are connected to a central office or local exchange via a passive fiber-optic infrastructure. This infrastructure splits into single-mode fibers and passive splitting components (power splitters/combiners and/or WDM filters). PONs work bidirectionally on single fibers, in almost all cases, by using different wavelengths for upstream (US) and downstream (DS).
Fiber cable and PLC splitter optical splitters are "passive" optical components. The use of passive components to guide the light waves through the network eliminates the need for remote powering, which cuts down on operational and maintenance costs.
The main purpose of the ONT is to provide IPTV subscribers with an interface to the PON. It receives traffic in optical format, examines the address contained within the network packets, and converts it into electrical signals. The ONT can be located inside or outside the residence, and is typically powered from a local source, and include bypass circuitry that allows the phone to operate normally in the event of a power failure. The majority of ONTs will include an Ethernet interface for data traffic, an RJ-11 connection for connecting into the home phone system, and a coaxial interface to provide connectivity to the TV. The ONT is also responsible for converting data into optical signals for transmission over the PON. active optical networks (AON) makes use of electrical components between the IPTV end user and the data center. In particular, the AON networking architecture utilizes Ethernet switches that reside between the IPTV data center and the endpoint of the fiber network.
For example, a single piece of optical fiber is run from the backend office to an optical splitter, which is typically located in close proximity to the subscriber’s house. The bandwidth on this fiber is typically shared and is capable of supporting high bandwidth capacities ranging from 622 Mbps all the way up to several gigabytes of data per second.
In addition to the physical components of a PON also illustrates the transmission of three different light wavelengths (channels) over the network. The first wavelength is used to carry high speed Internet traffic. The second wavelength is allocated to carry IO video services and the third wavelength may be used to carry interactive traffic from the subscriber’s home network back to the service provider’s backend equipment. Specialized FTTX filters called wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs) are installed at the data center and inside the OLT that allow a PON to support the transmission of multiple parallel channels or wavelengths on the one piece of fiber. Thus, creating a number of virtual fiber channels over a single fiber pair. Under WDM, the capacity of the network is increased by assigning signals that originate from optical sources to specific wavelengths on the optical transmission spectrum.
Fiberstore supply high quality PON and AON System products, like OLT, ONU with low price. Welcome to visit our online store.
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March 02, 2015
A basic optical communication link comprises a transmitter and receiver, with an optical fiber cable connecting them. Although signals propagating in optical fiber suffer far less attenuation than in other mediums, such as copper, there is still a limit of about 100 km on the distance the signals can travel before becoming too noisy to be detected.
Before the commercialization of Optical Amplifiers, it was necessary to electronically regenerate the optical signals every 80-100 km in order to achieve transmission over long distances. This meant receiving the optical signal, cleaning and amplifying it electronically, and then retransmitting it over the next segment of the communication link.
While this can be feasible when transmitting a single low capacity optical channel, it quickly becomes unfeasible when transmitting tens of high capacity WDM channels, resulting in a highly expensive, power-hungry and bulky regenerator station, as shown in Figure 1a. Furthermore, the regeneration hardware depends on the number of channels, as well as the bit-rate, protocol, and modulation format of each individual channel, so that any upgrade to the link would automatically require upgrades to the regenerator stations.
In traditional optical communication systems, optoelectronic regenerators are used between terminals to convert signals from the optical to the electrical domain and then back to the optical domain. Since its first report in 1987,1,2 the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) has revolutionized optical communications. Unlike optoelectronic regenerators, this optical amplifier does not need high-speed electronic circuitry and is transparent to data rate and format, which dramatically reduces cost.cwdm-mux8a also provide high gain, high power, and low noise figure. More importantly, all the optical signal channels can be amplified simultaneously within the EDFA in a single optical fiber, thus enabling wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology.
In the last dozen years, tremendous progress has been made in the development of EDFA components and technology, including erbium-doped fiber, semi conductor pump lasers, passive components, and splicing and assembly technology. In the research area, an EDFA with a bandwidth of 84 nm was recently demonstrated. Using these high-performance amplifiers, long distance transmission at 1 Tb/s was achieved for the first time. In the meantime, an enormous effort has been under way to incorporate EDFAs into commercial optical communication systems. After intensive laboratory research and development, Lucent Technologies (then the communication equipment division of AT&T) conducted the first field trial of a WDM optical communication system in 1989 and supplied the first commercial WDM system, which was deployed in 1995. Since then, the capacity of WDM systems has been increasing at a very fast pace. Lucent’s recently launched WaveStar TM 400G Optical Line System represents the most advanced of such systems. Today, optical amplifiers and WDM technology offer an unprecedented cost-effective means to meet the ever-increasing demand for trans- port capacity, networking functionality, and operational flexibility.
Erbium-doped fiber can be fabricated by several technologies. Figure 1 shows the energy levels of the erbium ion and the associated spontaneous lifetime in the fiber glass host. Erbium-doped fiber is usually pumped by semiconductor lasers at 980 nm or 1480 nm. A three-level model can be used for 980-nm pumps, while a two-level model usually suffices for 1480-nm pumps. 8,9 Complete inversion can be achieved with 980-nm pumping but not with 1480-nm pumping. The quantum efficiency is higher with 1480-nm pumps. The spontaneous lifetime of the metastable energy level ( 4 I 13/2) is about 10 ms, which is much slower than the signal bit rates of practical interest. As a result of the slow dynamics, intersymbol distortion and interchannel crosstalk are negligible—a key advantage of EDFAs.
Figure 2 shows the gain and loss coefficient spectra at different inversion levels for erbium-doped fiber co-doped with aluminum and germanium.Under a homogeneous broadening approximation, the overall gain spectrum of any piece of erbium-doped fiber always matches one of the curves after scaling and does not depend on the details of pump power, signal power, and saturation level along the fiber. The gain spectrum is very important for amplifier design.
A high inversion level provides low noise figure, while a low inversion level yields high efficiency in the conversion of photons from pump to signal. To achieve both low noise figure and high efficiency, two or more gain stages are generally used—the input stage is kept at a high inversion level and the output stage is kept at a low inversion level. Figure 3 shows one such example, in which an amplified spon- taneous emission (ASE) filter is inserted in the middle stage to prevent gain saturation caused by the ASE peak around 1530 nm. For optical amplifiers with two or more gain stages, the overall noise figure is mainly decided by the high-gain input stage, and the output power is basically determined by the strongly saturated output stage. The passive components have minimal impact on noise figure and output power when they are in the middle stage.
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Fiber Optic Adapters,couplers,mating sleeves, FC, SC, ST, LC, UPC,APC,MT-RJ, MU, E2000,female to female,hybrid,female to male, hybrid fiber optic adapters,multimode fiber connectors, multimode fiber optic adapters,simplex,duplex, quad fiber adapters.
Fiber optic adapters are mating devices used to link the connectors and fiber patch cords, adapters are commonly seen on patch panels and optical distribution units, we have the fiber optic adapters that are with flange to mount on the equipment, and we supply the no-flange fiber optic adapters too.
Fiberstore fiber optic adapters are female to male types and male to female types, different assortment including SC,FC,ST,LC,E2000,MU, there are single mode adapter andsma to to sma optical adapteravailable, we also have hybrid fiber optic adapters to match different kinds of fiber optic connectors,all of our fiber optic adapters use ceramic sleeves to ensure the high standard performance.
Fiber optic adapters are typically connecting cables with similiar connectors (SC to SC, LC to LC, etc.). Some adapters, called "hybrid", accept different types of connectors (ST to SC, LC to SC, etc.). When the connectors have differing ferrule sizes (1.25mm to 2.5mm), as found in LC to SC adapters, the adapters are significantly more expensive because of a more complicated design/manufacturing process.
Most adapters are female on both ends, to connect two cables. Some are male-female, which typically plug into a port on a piece of equipment. This then allows the port to accept a different connector than for which it was originally designed. We discourage this use because we find the adapter extending from the equipment is subject to being bumped and breaking. Also, if not properly routed, the weight of the cable and connector hanging from the adapter may cause some misalignment and a degraded signal.
We keep commonly used fiber optic adapters in stock and the delivery is fast, we make the fiber adapters strictly according to industry practice and we make sure they are compatible to use with most of the equipment in the market.
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Fiberstore fiber optic adapters are used in fiber optic connection, the typical use is to provide a cable to cable fiber connection. people sometimes also name them to be mating sleeves and hybrid adapters ,mating sleeves means this fibre optic adapter is used to connect the same type fiber optic connectors ,while hybrid adapters are the fiber optic adapter types used to connect different kinds of fiber optic connectors. Fiberstore fiber optic adapters have a name for its stability.
They provide reliable solution for fiber connections,e2000 fiber adapter apcand multimode fiber optic adapters available on request. Fiberstore adopt high quality raw materials and make these fiber optic adapters strictly according to international standard, this makes our fiber optic adapters fully compatible with the products from other manufacturers' in the market. Fiberstore offer Fiber Optic Adapters FC, SC, ST, LC, MT-RJ, MU, simplex, E2000, FC/APC, duplex, SC/APC, LC/APC, E2000/APC ,quad, mating sleeves, hybrid fiber optic adapters, Single mode fiber optic adapters, multimode fiber optic adapters.
Hybrid fiber optic adapters offer a solution for hybrid applications where the two different kinds of fiber connectors or cable assemblies need to be linked with each other. Most ofe2000 to sc adapteruse high precision ceramic sleeves which enable reliable ferrule mating and ensure low insertion loss and return loss during the linking.
Male-Female hybrid fiber adapter (Build-out Type hybrid fiber adapter) is a fiber adapter with a connector plug (male) end and an adapter socket (female) end. We call it Male-Female Hybrid fiber adapter. Such as ST male at one side, FC female the other side.
Female-Female hybrid fiber adapter (Bulk Type hybrid fiber adapter) is a fiber adapter with two different ends. We call it Female-Female Hybrid fiber adapter. Such as ST female at one side, FC female at the other side.
Our Hybrid Fiber Adapters are comprised of a polymer/metal outer body and inner assembly fitted with a precision alignment mechanism. The combination of a ceramic/phosphor bronze alignment sleeves and precision moulded polymer housing provides consistent long-term mechanical and optical performance.
We provide both Male-Female and Female-Female hybrid fiber adapters bridging popular connector types, such as ST, FC, SC, LC, MU, FDDI, E2000, MPO. They are precision made and manufactured to demanding specifications. Hybrid optical adapters with male to female configuration are very useful in connecting patchcords with different connectors. Because both a connector plug (male) and an adapter socket (female) are provided, this hybrid adapter fits in various circumstances, offering flexibility and reducing the size, weight and complexity of the system. It has low insertion loss and high return loss. We provide hybrid adapters bridging popular connector types, such as FC, SC, ST and LC.
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Fiber optic patch cord use fiber optic patch cord at each end of the module to send and receive wavelengths must be consistent, meaning that both ends of the fiber must be of the same wavelengths of light modules, simple method of distinction is the light color of the module to be consistent. R> most cases, short-wave optical module using multimode fiber (Orange fiber), long-wave optical module using single-mode fiber (yellow fibers) in order to ensure the accuracy of the data transmissions. Do not excessively bent optical fiber in use and around the ring, which would increase the attenuation of light during the transfer process. Fiber optic patch cord must be used after using optical fiber connector protection protective sleeve on it, dust and oil pollution will damage fiber coupling.
Types of fiber optic patch cord in LAN, due to multimode fibre, it was a sending, receiving, so is a pair of jumpers. And often fiber terminal box or will be provided by the optical fiber distribution frame-FC (screw) or ST-(bayonet) optical interfaces. So one end of the jumper is FC or ST-type, may be at the other end optical fiber transceiver or GBIC fiber modules SC-(port), LC SFP fiber module, then MT-RJ fiber MT-RJ switch the interface type.
Fiber optic patch cord are used for linking the equipment and components in the fiber optic network ,they are with various kinds of fiber optic connector types. the fiber optic patch cord types are classified by the fiber optic connector types, for example, we name LC fiber optic patch cord because this cable is with LC fiber optic connectors there are PC,UPC,APC type fiber patch cord, they are different because of the polish of fiber connectors.
LC Fiber Optic Patch Cord
LC is the short form of Lucent Connector, This is a physical contact fiber optic connection that we offer and has a UPC ultra quality polish. LC fiber patch cord connector is a push and latch structure, with plastic housing and accurate 1.25mm ceramic ferrule.fiber cable LC to LCis a popular kind of small form fiber optic patch cord which reduce the space and it is widely used for densely installation.
E2000 Fiber Optic Patch Cord
E2000 fiber optic patch cord is one of the latest style yet one of the most expensive cable. This is a physical contact fiber optic connection that we offer and has a UPC ultra quality polish. Features a spring-loaded shutter used to protect the ferrule from dust and scratches. E2000 fiber connectors is similar size of SC fiber connectors.
SC Fiber Optic Patch Cord
The SC fiber optic patch cord was invented by the Japanese company NTT. This is a physical contact fiber optic connection that we offer and has a UPC ultra quality polish. It is one of the most widely used fiber optic patch cords.ST to ST fiber cablefeatures low cost , simplicity as well as good durability, SC fiber optic patch cords is with a locking tab on the cable termination, it is a push and pull type fiber optic connector.
ST Fiber Optic Patch Cord
ST fiber optic patch cords standard was developed by AT&T. This is a physical contact fiber optic connection that we offer and has a UPC ultra quality polish. this kind of cable is with straight tip type terminations. there is only simplex ST fiber optic patch cords and no duplex ones. These days ST fiber optic connectors are usually with a metal housing ,although there are plastic housing ST fiber connectors, more and more people tend to use metal housing ST.ST APC fiber optic patch cord are also available.
FC Fiber Optic Patch Cord
FC fiber optic patch cords are with FC fiber optic connectors ,which is a screw type connection. This is a physical contact fiber optic connection that we offer and has a UPC ultra quality polish. FC fiber optic patch cords were very much popular in the past ,but people tend to use LC and SC to replace FC more and more.
To facilitate installation of our active fiber equipment we support a large selection of fiber optic patch cords. The always in stock fiber cables include optical connectors such as: SC, ST, LC and FC type, simplex and duplex. Our patch cords range from 0.5m to 10m and have almost all available combination of optical connectors. The most available lengths are 1m, 2m, 3m, 5m, and 10m patch cords. All single-mode patch cords are UPC polished (Ultra Physical Contact), while the multi-mode cables are PC polished. All patch cords are manually tested and verified and each patch cable is individually sealed and labeled with measured optical performance.
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The transceiver power budget can only deliver up to a certain length of transmission length. Previously, to solve this issue, a repeater or a regenerator would be used. A regenerator also called optical-electrical-optical (OEO) device since it converts the optical signal to an electrical signal, processes this signal (re-amplify, reshape and retime) and then converts back to an optical signal so that the signal can then cover longer distances.
The introduction of optical amplifiers in the 1990s, especially the EDFA (Erbium doped fiber amplifier) conquered the regenerator technology and opened doors to the WDM technology. The EDFAOptical Amplifiers, unlike the repeater, is transparent to the number of channels, bit-rate, protocol, and modulation formats thus revolutionizing the backhaul network (for transoceanic distance) and uplifting the optical communication field and community at large. There are various types of amplifiers depending on the technique of amplifying, namely SOA (semiconductor optical amplifier), EDFA and Raman amplifier.
In its most basic form the EDFA consist of a length of EDF (typically 10-30m), a pump laser, and a component (often referred to as a WDM) for combining the signal and pump wavelength so that they can propagate simultaneously through the EDF. In principle EDFA’s can be designed such that pump energy propagates in the same direction as the signal (forward pumping), the opposite direction to the signal(backward pumping), or both direction together. The pump energy may either by 980nm pump energy, 1480nm pump energy, or a combination of both. Practi cally, the most common EDFA configuration is the forward pumping configuration using 980nm pump energy , as shown in Figure 2. This configuration makes the most efficient use of cost effective, reliable and low power consumption 980nm semiconductor pump laser diodes, thus providing the best overall design with respect to performance and cost trade-offs.
Besides the three basic components described above, Figure 2 also shows additional optical and electronic components used in a basic single stage EDFA. The signal enters the amplifier through the input port, and then passes through a tap which is used to divert a small percentage of the signal power (typically 1-2%) to an input detector. The signal then passes through an isolator, before being combined with pump energy emitted by the 980nm pump laser diode. The combined signal and pump energy propagate along the EDF, where signal amplification occurs, and then the amplifi ed signal exits the EDF and passes through a second isolator. The purpose of the two isolators, which allow light to pass only in a single direction, is to ensure that lasing cannot take place within theCATV amplifier. Furthermore, the output isolator also acts as a filter for 980nm light propagating in the forward direction, thus stopping the 980nm light from exiting the amplifier output port.
In a multi-channel WDM amplifier, a Gain Flattening Filter (GFF) is usually placed following the output isolator in order to flatten the gain spectrum, as shown in Figure 3. The attenuation spectrum of the GFF is designed to match the Gain spectrum of the EDF (operating at a given fixed gain), such that the combination of the two produces a flat gain. Following the GFF the signal passes through an output tap used to divert a small percentage of the output power (typically 1-2%) to the output detec tor. The output and input detectors are used to monitor the input and output power respecti vely, and thus provide feed-back to the control unit, which controls the amplifier by setting the pump laser current, and thus the amount of pump power injected into the EDF. The control unit also provides exter nal communication, for example via an RS232 interface.
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Fiber optic splitter, also named beam splitter, is based on a quartz substrate of integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, the same as coaxial cable transmission system, The optical network system also needs to be an optical signal coupled to the branch distribution, which requires thepassive optical splitter, Is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals, Especially applicable to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to achieve the branching of the optical signal.
Fiber optic splitter is a key optical device in passive optical network (PON) systems, also known as a passive optical splitter, which splits the optical signal power evenly into all the output ports. In the PON field plant, a1x8 splitterto 1 × 32 splitter is placed on an electric pole, connecting the distribution optical cable in the air and the drop wire to the customer premises. A 1 × N splitter can be part of an N × N star coupler.
A fiber optic splitter is a device that splits the fiber optic light into several parts by a certain ratio. For example, when a beam of fiber optic light transmitted from a 1X4 equal ratio splitter, it will be divided into 4-fiber optic light by equal ratio that is each beam is 1/4 or 25% of the original source one. A fiber optic splitter is different from WDM. WDM can divide the different wavelength fiber optic light into different channels. fiber optic splitter divide the light power and send it to different channels.
Most Splitters available in 900μm loose tube and 250μm bare fiber. 1x2 and 2x2 couplers come standard with a protective metal sleeve to cover the split. Higher output counts are built with a box to protect the splitting components
Features of Fibertronics Splitters Couplers:
Comes in Singlemode, Multimode 62.5, and Multimode 50 Fiber Modes
Built with either 900μm loose tube fiber or 250μm bare fiber
Available unconnectorized or with any fiber optic connector or combination: LC, LC/APC, SC, SC/APC, FC, FC/APC, and ST
1x2 and 2x2 available in many split ratios including: 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80, 10/90, 5/95, 1/99, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10, 95/5, and 99/1
Fiberstore stocks hundreds of fiber optic adapter, fiber coupler, and fiber optic splitter solutions for both Multimode and Single mode fiber applications. We offer ST, SC, FC, LC, MTRJ, and MU style fiber optic adapters and fiber coupler products for just about every fiber cabling design requirement.
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January 19, 2015
At the heart of EDFA technology is the Erbium Doped Fiber (EDF), which is a conventional Silica fiber doped with Erbium. When the Erbium is illuminated with light energy at a suitable wavelength (either 980nm or 1480nm) it is excited to a long lifetime intermediate state (see Figure 1), following which it decays back to the ground state by emitting light within the 1525-1565 nm band. If light energy already exist within the 1525-1565nm band, for example due to a signal channel passing through the EDF, then this stimulates the decay process (so called stimulated emission), resulting in additional light energy. Thus, if a pump wavelength and a signal wavelength are simultaneously propagating through an EDF, energy transfer will occur via the Erbium from the pump wavelength to the signal wavelength, resulting in signal amplification.
In its most basic form the EDFA optical amplifier consist of a length of EDF (typically 10-30m), a pump laser, and a component (often referred to as a WDM) for combining the signal and pump wavelength so that they can propagate simultaneously through the EDF. In principle EDFA’s can be designed such that pump energy propagates in the same direction as the signal (forward pumping), the opposite direction to the signal (backward pumping), or both direction together. The pump energy may either by 980nm pump energy, 1480nm pump energy, or a combination of both. Practically, the most common EDFA configuration is the forward pumping configuration using 980nm pump energy, as shown in Figure 2. This configuration makes the most efficient use of cost effective, reliable and low power consumption 980nm semiconductor pump laser diodes, thus providing the best overall design with respect to performance and cost trade-offs.
High Output Power with Class 1M Laser Safety
High capacity reconfigurable networks require high output power in order to maintain acceptable levels of OSNR. On the other hand, a major requirement for optical networks is that they comply with relevant laser safety standards, such as IEC 60825 parts 1 and 2, ITU-T G.664, and CDRH 21 CFR §1040.10. These standards dictate a maximum safe level of laser radiation, known as the Class 1M hazard level, above which exposure to radiation can be potentially harmful to skin and eyes. For EDFA’s operating in the C-Band, the Class 1M hazard level corresponds to a maximum theoretical output power of about 21.3 dBm. In practice however, the specified output power of a Class 1M EDFA should not exceed 20.5dBm, in order to take into account suitable safety margins.
For an EDFA to provide output power above 20.5 dBm, and still retain a Class 1M safety classification, it is necessary to provide an automatic power reduction (APR) mechanism that ensures reduction of output power upon occurrence of any event which could potentially lead to exposure to radiation above the Class 1M hazard level.
The Fiberstore VG EDFA In-line Amplifier Class 1M APR scheme is based on two independent detection mechanisms designed to detected any disruption in the output transmission line up to a distance of a few tens of kilometers, sufficiently far to cover that part of the transmission line where the signal power is above 20.5 dBm. Upon detection of such a disruption, the output power is decreased within 100 ms (in compliance with Class 1M requirements) to a level below 20.5 dBm. The APR hardware supports full redundancy of all critical components, such that there is no single point of failure which could lead to a situation where the EDFA remains operational, while the APR is not in operation.
A complementary feature to the APR mechanism is the automatic restart procedure (ARP). This ensures that when the fiber disruption that caused an APR event is corrected, the EDFA will automatically increase output power to the required level without need for manual operator intervention. These unique and patent protected mechanisms allow Fiberstore EDFAs to be classified as Class 1M laser products, while at the same time providing up to 26 dBm output power.
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January 06, 2015
Fiber optic media are any network transmission media that generally use glass, or plastic fiber in some special cases, to transmit network data in the form of light pulses. Within the last decade, optical fiber has become an increasingly popular type of network transmission media as the need for higher bandwidth and longer spans continues.
Fiber optic technology is different in its operation than standard copper media because the transmissions are "digital” light pulses instead of electrical voltage transitions. Very simply, fiber optic transmissions encode the ones and zeroes of a digital network transmission by turning on and off the light pulses of a laser light source, of a given wavelength, at very high frequencies. The light source is usually either a laser or some kind of Light-Emitting Diode (LED). The light from the light source is flashed on and off in the pattern of the data being encoded. The light travels inside the fiber until the light signal gets to its intended destination and is read by an optical detector.
Fiber optic cables are optimized for one or more wavelengths of light. The wavelength of a particular light source is the length, measured in nanometers (billionths of a meter, abbreviated "nm”), between wave peaks in a typical light wave from that light source. You can think of a wavelength as the color of the light, and it is equal to the speed of light divided by the frequency. In the case of Single-Mode Fiber (SMF), many different wavelengths of light can be transmitted over the same optical fiber at any one time. This is useful for increasing the transmission capacity of the fiber optic cable since each wavelength of light is a distinct signal. Therefore, many signals can be carried over the same strand of optical fiber. This requires multiple lasers and detectors and is referred to as Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM).
Typically, optical fibers use wavelengths between 850 and 1550 nm, depending on the light source. Specifically, Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF) is used at 850 or 1300 nm and the SMF is typicallyused at 1310, 1490, and 1550 nm (and, in WDM systems, in wavelengths around these primary wavelengths). The latest technology is extending this to 1625 nm for SMF that is being used for next-generation Passive Optical Networks (PON) for FTTH (Fiber-To-The-Home) applications. Silica-based glass is most transparent at these wavelengths, and therefore the transmission is more efficient (there is less attenuation of the signal) in this range. For a reference, visible light (the light that you can see) has wavelengths in the range between 400 and 700 nm. Most fiber optic light sources operate within the near infrared range (between 750 and 2500 nm). You can’t see infrared light, but it is a very effective fiber optic light source.
Above: Multimode fiber is usually 50/125 and 62.5/125 in construction. This means that the core to cladding diameter ratio is 50 microns to 125 microns and 62.5 microns to 125 microns. There are several types of multimode fiber patch cable available today, the most common are multimode SC fiber cable, LC, ST, FC, ect.
Tips: Most traditional fiber optic light sources can only operate within the visible wavelength spectrum and over a range of wavelengths, not at one specific wavelength. Lasers (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) and LEDs produce light in a more limited, even single-wavelength, spectrum.
WARNING: Laser light sources used with fiber optic cables (such as the OM3 cables) are extremely hazardous to your vision. Looking directly at the end of a live optical fiber can cause severe damage to your retinas. You could be made permanently blind. Never look at the end of a fiber optic cable without first knowing that no light source is active.
The attenuation of optical fibers (both SMF and MMF) is lower at longer wavelengths. As a result, longer distance communications tends to occur at 1310 and 1550 nm wavelengths over SMF. Typical optical fibers have a larger attenuation at 1385 nm. This water peak is a result of very small amounts (in the part-per-million range) of water incorporated during the manufacturing process. Specifically it is a terminal –OH(hydroxyl) molecule that happens to have its characteristic vibration at the 1385 nm wavelength; thereby contributing to a high attenuation at this wavelength. Historically, communications systems operated on either side of this peak.
When the light pulses reach the destination, a sensor picks up the presence or absence of the light signal and transforms the pulses of light back into electrical signals. The more the light signal scatters or confronts boundaries, the greater the likelihood of signal loss (attenuation). Additionally, every fiber optic connector between signal source and destination presents the possibility for signal loss. Thus, the connectors must be installed correctly at each connection. There are several types of fiber optic connector available today. The most common are: ST, SC, FC, MT-RJ and LC style connectors. All of these types of connectors can be used with either multimode or single mode fiber.
Most LAN/WAN fiber transmission systems use one fiber for transmitting and one for reception. However, the latest technology allows a fiber optic transmitter to transmit in two directions over the same fiber strand (e.g, a passive cwdm mux using WDM technology). The different wavelengths of light do not interfere with each other since the detectors are tuned to only read specific wavelengths. Therefore, the more wavelengths you send over a single strand of optical fiber, the more detectors you need.Article Source: http://www.cables-solutions.com/the-more-and-more-mature-fiber-optic-cables-transmission-technology.html
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January 05, 2015
A fiber optic splitter is a device that splits the fiber optic light into several parts by a certain ratio. For example, when a beam of fiber optic light transmitted from a 1X4 equal ratio splitter, it will be divided into 4-fiber optic light by equal ratio that is each beam is 1/4 or 25% of the original source one. A fiber optic splitter is different from WDM. WDM can divide the different wavelength fiber optic light into different channels. fiber optic splitter divide the light power and send it to different channels.
Most Splitters available in 900µm loose tube and 250µm bare fiber. 1×2 and 2×2 couplers come standard with a protective metal sleeve to cover the split. Higher output counts are built with a box to protect the splitting components.
Testing a coupler or splitter (both names are used for the same device) or other passive fiber optic devices like switches is little different from testing a patchcord or cable plant using the two industry standard tests, OFSTP-14 for double-ended loss (connectors on both ends) or FOTP-171 for single-ended testing.
First we should define what these passive devices are. An optical coupler is a passive device that can split or combine signals in optical fibers. They are named by the number of inputs and outputs, so a splitter with one input and 2 outputs is a 1x2 fiber splitter, and a PON splitter with one input and 32 outputs is 1x32 splitter. Some PON splitters have two inputs so it would be a 2X32. Here is a table of typical losses for splitters.
Important Note! Mode Conditioning can be very important to testing couplers. Some of the ways they are manufactured make them very sensitive to mode conditioning, especially multimode but even singlemode couplers. Singlemode couplers should always be tested with a small loop in the launch cable (tied down so it does not change and set the 0dB reference with the loop.) Multimode couplers should be mode conditioned by a mandrel wrap or similar to ensure consistency.
Let’s start with the simplest type. Shown below is a simple 1X2 splitter with one input and two outputs. Basically, in one direction it splits the signal into 2 parts to couple to two fibers. If the split is equal, each fiber will carry a signal that is 3dB less than the input (3dB being a factor of two) plus some excess loss in the coupler and perhaps the connectors on the 1x4 fiber optic splitter module. Going the other direction, signals in either fiber will be combined into the one fiber on the other side. The loss is this direction is a function of how the coupler is made. Some couplers are made by twisting two fibers together and fusing them in high heat, so the coupler is really a 2X2 coupler in which case the loss is the same (3dB plus excess loss) in either direction. Some splitters use optical integrated components, so they can be true splitters and the loss in each direction may different.
So for this simple 1X2 PLC splitter, how do we test it? Simply follow the same directions for a double-ended loss test. Attach a launch reference cable to the test source of the proper wavelength (some splitters are wavelength dependent), calibrate the output of the launch cable with the meter to set the 0dB reference, attach to the source launch to the splitter, attach a receive launch cable to the output and the meter and measure loss. What you are measuring is the loss of the splitter due to the split ratio, excess loss from the manufacturing process used to make the splitter and the input and output connectors. So the loss you measure is the loss you can expect when you plug the splitter into a cable plant.
To test the loss to the second port, simply move the receive cable to the other port and read the loss from the meter. This same method works with typical PON splitters that are 1 input and 32 outputs. Set the source up on the input and use the meter and reference cable to test each output port in turn.
What about the other direction from all the output ports? (In PON terms, we call that upstream and the other way from the 1 to 32 ports direction downstream.) Simply reverse the direction of the test. If you are tesing a 1X2 splitter, there is just one other port to test, but with a 1X32, you have to move the source 32 times and record the results on the meter.
What about multiple input and outputs, for example a 2X2 coupler? You would need to test from one input port to the two outputs, then from the other input port to each of the two outputs. This involves a lot of data sometimes but it needs to be tested.
There are other tests that can be performed, including wavelength variations (test at several wavelengths), variations among outputs (compare outputs) and even crosstalk (put a signal on one output and look for signal on other outputs.)
Once installed, the splitter simply becomes one source of loss in the cable plant and is tested as part of that cable plant loss for insertion loss testing. Testing splitters with an OTDR is not the same in each direction.
Other Passive Devices
There are other passive devices that require testing, but the test methods are similar.
Fiber optic switches are devices that can switch an input to one of several outputs under electronic control. Test as you would the splitter as shown above. Switches may be designed for use in only one direction, so check the device specifications to ensure you test in the proper direction. Switches may also need testing for consistency after multiple switch cycles and crosstalk.
Attenuators are used to reduce signal levels at the receiver to prevent overloading the receiver. There is a page on using attenuators that you should read. If you need to test an attenuator alone, not part of a system, use the test for splitters above by using the attenuator to connect the launch and receive cables to see if the loss is as expected.
Wavelength-division multiplexers can be tricky to test because they require sources at a precise wavelenth and spectral width, but otherwise the test procedures are similar to other passive components.
Fiber optic couplers or splitters are available in a wide range of styles and sizes to split or combine light with minimal loss. All couplers are manufactured using a very simple proprietary process that produces reliable, low-cost devices. They are physically rugged and insensitive to operating temperatures. Couplers can be fabricated in custom fiber lengths and/or with terminations of any type.
Fiberstore offers a wide variety of collimation and coupling components that can be used to effectively collimate or couple light out of and into FC/PC, FC/APC, or SMA terminated fiber. OEM manufactuer of Passive fiber optical splitters for PON. 1x2, 1x4, 1x8, 1x16, 1x32, 1x64 optical splitter and 2x N ftth splitter-PLC& singlemode& multimode FBT fiber coupler splitter. Optical isolators help protect sensitive laser sources and components from back reflections while fiber couplers, WDMs, circulators, and switches are the fundamental tools to creating fiber based optical circuits. We also offer a line of components for optogenetics applications, including fiber optic cannulae, patch cords, and light sources.
More about optical fiber information, you can go to fiber opitc components blog, we designs, manufactures, and sells a broad portfolio of optical communication products, including passive optical network, or PON, subsystems, optical transceivers used in the enterprise, access, and metropolitan segments of the market, as well as other optical components, modules, and subsystems.
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January 01, 2015
Recently I saw many people be in trouble in fiber patch cable management, usually see them stack the cables casually, many people will have the feeling of a mess and always envy other people can do it well, maybe today’s article can give you a lot of help and don’t have to be jealous of other people’s good work.
Fiber patch cords have the possibly to be the weakest link in the fiber optic network, usually in order the finish optimum performance and reliability we must observe true procedures in administration of the singlemode simplex fiber, the best solution will be the smallest cost and changes or moves. In the fiber patch cable managements, the voice connection should be also careful. Well, let’s tell you detailed procedures.
When we receive the request from the administration, be sure that you know the introduction and design of the fiber cabling and you should also know that if you have fiber patch cords that can match to the stalled cabling, the reason is that fiber optic cables have different types and they should be distinguished. Then choose suitable length of fiber cable. The length depends on its points of connection. It is the shortest one that does not obstruct or interfere with other cords and connectors on the fiber patch panels, avoiding running cords and connectors on the panel. The next step is that tight the patch cable, it will be pulled on connectors and too much slack complicates cable management, making the fiber patch panel more difficult to operate in. At the fiber patch panel, the patch cables equally toward both sides of the vertical cable management channels to prevent overloading one side. Be careful not to mix up cords of different core diameters. Additionally, cords must be of the same or higher bandwidth as the behind-the-wall cabling.
Before the patching, there is a point we need to remember, it is cleaning the connector, the cleaning parts include connector ends on lc to lc fiber patch cord, connector ends on panels, connector ends on network equipment, as for how to clean different types of the fibre optic connector, such as fibre optic sc connector, fibre optic lc connector…We mentioned it in our Fiberstore’s blog, if you are interested in it, welcome to visit Fiberstore’s blog. For example, exceeding the bend radius can result in significant additional loss and adverse impact on channel performance.
For example, mpo fiber cable, the minimum bend radius is ten times the core diameter. Take care not to use excessive force during the patching process. This can stress cords and connectors, reducing their performance. If you need to go to force in pulling a cord, something is wrong. If the existing core is the right length, it may be possible to re-use it. If this is the case, remove the cord completely and re-run it in through the cable pathways. This is the only guaranteed way to ensure there are no tangles, kinks or strains in the cord. The final step is to update the documentation of the as-built configuration and close the work order associated with the completed change request.
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December 31, 2014
Mostly, all optical amplifiers are used in optical communication. Generally, Brillouin type amplifier is not used in optical communication. For a particular use, the decision has to be made about which amplifier to be used. The EDFA amplifier is used in-line amplifier on account of its compatibility. On the other hand, CATV amplifier will be a very good power amplifier because of its high saturation.
EDFAs and conventional lasers, achieve gain by pumping atoms into a high energy state. This allows the atoms to release their energy when a photon of a suitable wavelength passes nearby. RFAs utilize Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) to create optical gain. Because SRS robs energy from shorter wavelengths and feeds it to longer wavelengths, high channel count DWDM systems initially avoided this technique.
A RFA amplifier consists of little more than a high-power pump laser, usually called a Raman laser, and a WDM or directional coupler. The optical amplification occurs in the transmission fiber itself, distributed along the transmission path. With amplification up to 10 dB, RFAs provide a wide gain bandwidth (up to 100 nm), allowing them to operate using any installed optical fiber (single mode optical fiber, TrueWave, etc.). By boosting the optical signal in transit, RFAs reduce the effective span loss and improve noise performance.
Combined with EDFAs, RFAs create a wide gain-flattened optical bandwidth. The figure belwo shows the topology of a typical RFA. The pump laser and optical circulator comprise the two key elements of the RFA amplifier. In this case, the pump laser has a wavelength of 1535 nm. The optical circulator provides a convenient means of injecting light backwards into the transmission path with minimal optical loss.
Here are the figures which show the optical spectrum of a forward-pumped RFA amplifier and the received signal after the same length of fiber used in the SRS example. The signal gets injected by the 1535 nm pump laser at the transmit end rather than the receive end. Generally, the amplitude of the pump laser exceeds that of the data signals.
With a significant decrease in the amplitude of the pump laser, the amplitude of the six data signals has increased, giving all six signals roughly equal amplitudes. In this case, the SRS effect robbed a great deal of energy from the 1535 nm pump laser signal and redistributed that energy to the six data signals.
Fiber Optic Network is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. Fiberstore, backed by China factories, supplies a complete series of products for fiber optic networking, such as passive WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) modules (including CWDM, DWDM, OADM, etc.), multimode fiber splitter, optical amplifiers, optical attenuators, CWDM & DWDM transceivers, transponders, and active CWDM & DWDM equipment. Our singlemode& multimode FBT optical splitter comes in a wide range of split ratios with single/double/three windows. You can get complete solutions from Fiberstore when you build or expand fiber optic network capacity.
More fiber optic network information can go to fiberopticshare blog, designs, manufactures, and sells a broad portfolio of optical communication products, including passive optical network, or PON, subsystems, optical transceivers used in the enterprise, access, and metropolitan segments of the market, as well as other optical components, modules, and subsystems.
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December 30, 2014
Fiber optic patch cable, a quite simple but necessary fiber optic products in our optical network, all people who works in the fiber optical industry almost have some knowledge about it. It mainly includes a fiber optic cable and a connector on its end parts, and this kind of fiber optic cable is used to communicate with different optical devices or other electronic devices for transmitting the signal, since these points, we can believe that has different types, different connectors, different lengths, different applications and so on. However, these differences can help me choose what we need and today this page will explain fiber patch cables from different aspects and hope this page give you some helps.
Firstly, we must have it in mind is fiber optic connector, as you know, at its end parts we can see that many different connectors, the commonly used connectors are ST, SC, LC, MT-RJ, FC, MU, SMA, ESCON, FDDI and etc…, well, the two sides all can be different, it just means such as LC to ST fiber patch cable, FC to sc fiber patch cable and others. Fiber application for fiber optic connectors can be singlemode and multimode patch cable, we usually see it and it sometimes abbreviation as SM and MM patch cable. Of course, they can have different options, for example, singlemode lc to lc fiber patch cord or multimode FC to SCfiber patch cable… The Figure show four common types of fiber connectors.
As for the the differences between singlemode and multimode fiber optic cables, singlemode is an optical fiber cable with a small core (eg 2-9 microns) that supports one mode and multimode is an optical fiber with a core (25-200 microns) that supports several mode and the core size is also different, commonly SM is 8.3/125 and multimode is 62.5/125, except this, singlemode used to high speed, long distance links and multimode used for lower speed and short distance links. Then another category is usually forgotten, the mode conditioning fiber cables, it is specific to gigabit ethernet applications, all these cables are not interchangeable. By the way,there are some types we have to mention it, it is simplex and duplex cable, simplex cable has a single fiber and duplex cable has two fibers and they usually in zipcord (side by side) style, simplex 3mm and duplex 3mm are shown as the Figure.
Secondly, the jacket types are we also nend to know, available jacket types are PVC riser, ofnp plenum, indoor and outdoor riser, indoor and outdoor plenum, aerial and direct burial, waterproof fiber optic patch cords, ribbon fiber optic cables and bunched fiber optic cables. In Fiberstore, PVC/lszh patch cables category are OM1, OM2, OM3 cables and OM4 fiber cables, and the OM3 and OM4 provide data transfer speeds of 10G in 10Gbe high bandwidth applications via OM4 fiber, it is faster than equal μm OM2 fiber, and the OM1 and OM2 fiber cables in Fiberstore all multimode fiber cables.
Finally, the pulling eye option is also important, it is the end of the cable to prevent damage during installation. During the fiber optic installation, the force is redirected to the body of the cable instead of the core or connectors, this reduces the stress and damage to the fibers, it maybe removed and reused. They are used in telecommunication network, active device termination, CATV networks and local area networks.
Well, when we know some knowledge of fiber patch cables, and the next step we need to know where to buy it, there is a quite good site for you, Fiberstore will be you good choice, it has professional solution to provide for you and high quality fiber cables to supply, include bare fiber adapter and even fiber optic pigtails, more to say, Fiberstore is doing big sales for the festal arrival, if there are some needs, welcome to have a try.Related Article: Overview Of 16 Gbps Fiber Channels
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December 25, 2014
The 100BASE-FX fiber optic media system provides all of the advantages of a 10BASE-FL fiber optic link segment, while operating ten times faster. Distances of 2 km (6561.6 feet) over multimode fiber optic cables are possible when operating 100BASE-FX segments in full-duplex mode. Considerably longer distances are possible when using single mode fiber segments. This is why the 100BASE-FX media system is a popular choice for Ethernet backbone networks.
The following set of media components are used to build a 100BASE-FX fiber optic segment:
● Fiber optic cable.
● Fiber optic connectors.
Fiber Optic Cable
The 100BASE-FX specification requires two strands of multimode fiber optic (MMF) cable per link, one for transmit data, and one for receive data, with the signal crossover (TX or RX) performed in the link as shown in Figure 10-4. There are many kinks of fiber optic cables available, ranging from simple two-strand jumper cables with PVC plastic for the outer jacket material on up to large inter-building cables carrying many fibers in a bundle.
The typical fiber optic cable used for a 100BASE-FX fiber link segment consists of a graded-index MMF cable. These fibers optic cables have a 62.5 um fiber optic core and 125um outer cladding (62.5/125). The wavelength of light used on a 100BASE-TX fiber link segment is 1350 nanometers (nm). Signals sent at that wavelength over MMF fiber can provide segnment lengths of up to 2000 meters (6561 feet) when operating the link in full-duplex mode. More details on installing and using fiber optic cables and connectors can be found, Fiber optic patch cable and connectors.
Fiber Optic Connector
The medium-dependent interface (MDI) for a 100BASE-FX link may be one of three kinks of fiber optic connector. Of the three, the duplex SC connector shown in Figure 10-3 is the recommended alternative in the standard an is the one most widely used gy vendors. The SC connector is designed for ease of use; the single mode fibre cable with lc connector is pushed into place and automatically snaps into the connector housing to complete the connection.
The ST connector may also be used. This is the same connector used for a 10BASE-FL link. It is a spring-loaded bayonet-type connector that has a key on an inner sleeve and an outer baynoet ring. To make a connection, you line up the key on the inner sleeve of the ST plug with a corresponding slot on the ST receptacle, then push the connector in and lock it in place by twisting the outer bayonet ring.
According to the standard, the FFDI fiber optic media interface connector (MIC) may also be used on 100BASE-FX equipment: however, this optional connector has not been adopted by equipment vendors.
Connecting a Station to 100BASE-FX Ethernet
Figure 10-4 shows a computer equipped with a 100BASE-FX Ethernet adapter. In this example, the adapter card comes with an SC duplex connector, which makes a connection to the fiber cables that connect to the repeater hub. The repeater hub in the figure is shown with three pairs of 100BASE-FX SC connectors and built-in transceivers. A signal crossover is required to make a connection between the 100BASE-FX transceiver in the station, and the 100BASE-FX transceiver located in each repeater or switching hub port.
Fiberstore as the main professional fiber optic products manufacturer in china offer a various kinds of fiber cable connectors, FC Connectors, LC Connectors, SC Connectors, MPO Connectors and ST Connectors. You can buy fiber optic connection products on our store with your confidence. All of fiber optics supplies with high quality but low price. Except fiber optic connector, we provide various types of fiber patch cords including single mode, multimode, multi core, and armored versions. You can aslo find fiber optic pigtails and other special patch cables here. For most of them, the SC, ST, FC, LC, MU, MTRJ, E2000, APC/UPC connectors are all available, even we supply MPO/MTP fiber cables.Article Source: http://www.fiber-optic-components.com/100-base-fx-mdeia-components.html
December 23, 2014
Quite often it is desirable to have a means of connecting two fibers together through a temporary mating device or connector. Figure 7.4 shows a common way to implement such a connector. Each fiber is placed in a ferrule whose function is to provide the mechanical support for the fiber and hold it in place tightly. The ferrule can be made out of plastic, metal, or ceramic materials. The central piece of the connector itself is an alignment sleeve. The two ferrules are inserted in the sleeve, and proper alignment between the cores is ensured because of the tight mechanical tolerances of the ferrules and the sleeve. The gap between the two fibers can be controlled by a mechanical stop which determines the exact stopping positions of the fibers. In some variations, the alignment sleeve is tapered to improve connector mating and demating.
Well-designed connectors provide low coupling loss, in the order of 0.1 dB or less. However, as shown in Fig. 7.5, a number of underirable situations can reduce the coupling efficiency. Figure 7.5a shows a case of two fibers with different core diameters. In general, whenver the numberical apertures of two fibers are different, the potential for power loss exists. In this case, light coupling from a narrower fiber core to a wide fiber core is easier and more efficient compared to coupling in the other direction. Figure 7.5b shows an example of poor concentricity. Fibers that do not provide a tigh concentricity tolerance may show large coupling variations depending on the orientation or from one pair of fibers to the next.
A large air gap, shown in Fig 7.5c, is another reason for loss of power. An air gap can result from incomplete insertion of the fiber or from mechanical problems inside the sleeve. It is also common for microscopic dust particles to get into fiber optic connector, preventing them from making proper conatact, or even scratching and damaging the fiber facets.
More dramatic power reduction results when dust particles land on the fiber core, blocking the light path. As a result, constant monitoring and cleaning of fiber facets are important to prevent such probems. Angular or lateral displacement, the mechanical tolerances are not tigh enough or when the dimensions of the sleeve and the ferrule do not match.
A fiber connector is characterized by several important parameters. As noted before, the most important factor is insertion loss, or simply connector loss. Another important factor is repeatability. If the same two fibers are connected through the same connector a number of times, each time the coupling will be slightly different. A good connector assmbly provides a small standard deviation for coupling efficiency across multiple insertions. Another desiralbe specification of a fiber connector is low return loss, i.e., a low back reflection. Return loss is defined as the ratio of the reflected power from the connector to the input power. For example, a return loss f 30 dB means 0.001 of the input power is reflected back from the connector. A conector must also be resistant and show a minimal coupling variation in the presence of normal mechanical forces such as axial and lateral forces. This is a practical requirement because in a normal environment it is likely for the connector to encounter a range of mechanical forces.
A wide range of connectors have been designed and are in use in the industry. Here we give an overview of some of the most popular types.
Straight tip or ST connectors are one of the more common type of connectors and in wide use in many applications. The ferrule diameter in an ST connector is 2.5 mm. ST connectors are spring loaded and enaged by a twist-and-lock mechanism.
Fixed connector or FC connectors use an alignment key and a threaded (screw-on) socket and are similar to the popular SMA connectors used in electronics. They are in wide use in single-mode applications and provide low insertion loss and high repeatability.
Subscriber connector, or SC, is another common type of connector. The advantage offibre optic sc connectoris that they are engaged by a push-and-snap mechanism, without the need for any roation. This make plugging and unplugging them very easy and also reduces wear out. Moreover, a higher connector density is achieved. Many transceivers provide either an SC receptacle connector, or a pigtail SC connector, as their optical interface. The push-and-snap feature of SC connectors thus provides very convenient and easy way of connecting to optical trasceivers. SC connectors are avaiable in simplex and duplex variations. The ferrule diameter in an SC connector is 2.5 mm.
SC fiber optic patch cable is one of the earliest stype and one of the most commonly used fiber optic cable, it is convenient to use and cost saving, SC fiber optic patch cord is widely uesed in fiber optic networks. SC fiber patch cable is with zirconia sleeve and plastic housing. The common type of SC connector patch cord, there are SC to SC fiber patch cord, SC to LC fiber optic patch cable, SC to ST Fiber Optic Patch Cable, SC to FC Fiber Optic Patch Cable, ect.
The LC or small form factor connector is similar to the SC, but with half the size. The diameter of the ferrule in an LC connector is 1.25 mm, vs 2.5 mm for most other connectors. This allow for twice the connector density for a given space. Because of their compactness, LC connectors have become more popular and are used in many high-end transceivers such as SFPs and XFPs. lc to lc duplex single mode is with a small form factor (SFF) connector and is ideal for high density applications. LC fiber optic patch cord connector has a zirconia ceramic ferrule measuring 1.25mm O.D. with a PC or APC endface, and provides optimum insertion and return loss.
We carry singlemode and multimode optical fiber patch cables with a variety of connector types such as LC, SC, ST, and MTRJ. Duplexfiber optic patch cableconsist of two fiber cores and can be either multimode or singlemode. This dual core system allows for the bi-directional transfer of data, as opposed to simplex fiber cables, which typically only propagate data in one direction. The exception being Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems in which bidirectional communication is acheived over singlemode simplex fiber using multiple wavelengths. In our "How-To” section you will find step-by-step instructions on how to terminate fiber optic cable.
December 22, 2014
There are many different fiber optic connection methods, connector types, and ways to terminate them, single-mode and multimode connectors create differences in the types and methods used as well. If you plan to work with fiber optics, you should perform in-depth research about fiber before attempting to terminate it. In fact, it is best to take a course in fiber optic cable termination or learn from an expernt.
When terminating fiber and adding connectors, there are two main connector type to chosse from: SC and ST. There are many other connection types (fiber has been around since the early 1970s) that have been developed through the years, but to limit the scope of this book to what is most widely used on data networks today, you need to be thoroughly familiar with the SC and ST connectors.
SC is a snap-in connector, meaning that you place it in a receptacle, such as on a network switch, and click it into place; this is also called stick and click. The SC connector is shown in Figure 8.14.
SC connector are a relatively new connector-type technology, but are in popular use today. Part of their popularity is that are cheaper and easier to use than ST connectors, and less prone to damage. You will most likely see thesee types of connections from large core swiches with fiber uplinks to smaller closet swiches in campus network.
As we know, SC patch cable is with SC connector which was invented by NTT. It is widely used fiber optic patch cables. SC fiber optic patch cable has low cost and good durability, SC fiber optic patch cables is with a locking tab on the cable termination, it is a push and pull type optical connector. The common SC patch cable we have seen, there are SC to FC, SC to SC adss fiber, SC to ST, and SC to LC.
ST (which is an old AT&T trademarked technology) is another type of fiber connection type. Like the BNC connector for coaxial cable, it has a bayonetbased mounting end and a long cylindrical ferrule, which is spring-loaded sheath used to hold the fiber in place. You insert the connector into a receptacle and twist it to lock it into place. Stick and twist considered an older technology, but is still widely used on data networks, and its install base is broad. An ST connector is shown in Figure 8.15
Real-world production enviroments (especially when working with Cisco Systmes, Nortel Networks) do not include ST in new implementations. In most cases, the only way to use this order technology is with a mediation device, such as a transceiver, which has one end that plugs into an attachment unit interface (AUI) port and an ST-based mounting connection on the other end.
To facilitate installation of our active fiber equipment we support a large selection of fiber optic patch cords. The always in stock fiber cables include optical connectors such as: SC, ST, LC and FC type, simplex and duplex. Our patch cords range from 0.5m to 10m and have almost all available combination of optical connectors. The most available lengths are 1m, 2m, 3m, 5m, and 10m patch cords. All single-mode patch cords are UPC polished (Ultra Physical Contact), while the multi-mode cables are PC polished. All fiber patch cords are manually tested and verified and each patch cable is individually sealed and labeled with measured optical performance.We offer competitive price for fiber optic patch cable, our company has strictly quality control system and high quality products,the custom fiber patch cable is fast delivery to worldwide customers.Article Source: http://www.cables-solutions.com/two-main-connector-type-sc-and-st.html
December 19, 2014
The LC connector developed by Lucent Technologies and shown in Fig.3.10 is a more evolutionary approach to achieving the goals of a SFF connector. The LC connector utilizes the traditional components of a SC duplex connector having independent ceramic ferrules and housings, with the overall size scaled down by one-half. The LC family of connectors includes a stand-alone simplex design; a "behind the wall” (BTW) connector and the duplex connector available in both single-mode and multimode tolerances are all designed using the RJ-style latch.
The outward appearance and physical size of the LC connector varies slightly depending on the application and vendor preference. Although all the connectors in the LC family have similar latch styles modeled after the copper RJ latch, the simplex version of the connector has a slightly longer body than either the duplex or BTW version, and the latch has an additional latch actuator arm that is designed to assist in plugging as well to prevent snagging in the field. The BTW connector is the smallest of the LC family and is designed as a field-or board-mounatable connector using 900-um buffered fiber and in some cases has slightly extended latch for extraction purposes. The duplex version of this connector has modified body to accept the duplexing clip that joins the two connector bodies toghther and actuates the two latches as one. Finally, even the duplex clip itself has variations depending on the vendor. In some cases the duplex clip us a solid one-piece design and must be placed on the cable prior to connectorization, while other design and must be placed on the cable prior to connectorization, while other designs have slots built into each side to allow the clip to be installed after connectorzation. In coclusion, all LC connectors are not created equal, and depending on style and manufacturer’s preference, there may be attributes that make one connector more suitable for a specific application then another.
The LC duplex connector incorporates two round ceramic ferrules with outer diameters of 1.25mm and a duplex pitch of 6.25mm. These ferrules are aligned through the traditional couplers and bores using precision ceramic split or solid sleeves. In an attempt to improve the optical performance to better than 0.10 db at these interfaces, most of the ferrule and backbane assemblies are designed to allow the cable manufacturer to tune them. Tuning of the LC connector simply consists of roating the ferrule to one of four available positions dictated by the backbone design. The concept is basically to align the concentricity offset of each ferrule to a single quadrant at 12.00; in effect, if all the cores are slightly offset in the same direction, the probalility of a core-to-core alignment is increased and optimum performance can be achieved. Although this concept has its merits, it is yet another costly step in the manufacturing process, and in the case where a tuned connector is mated with an untuned connector, the increase in performance may not be realized.
Typically, the LC duplex connectors are terminated onto a new reduced-size zipcord referred to as mini-zip. However, as the product matures and the applications expand, it may be found on a number of different cordages. The mini-zip cord is one of the smallest in the industry with an outer diameter of 1.6mm compared with the standard zipcord for an SC style product of 3.0 mm. Although this cable has passed industry standard testing, the cable manufacturers have raised some issues concering the ability of the 900-um fibers to move freely inside a 1.6-mm jacket and others involving the overall crimped pull strengths. For these reasons, some end users and calbe manufactures are opting for a larger 2.0-mm, 2.4-mm, or even the standard 3.0-mm zipcord. In application wher the fiber is either protected within a wall outlet or cabinet, the BTW connector is used and terminated directly onto the 900-um buffers with no jacket protection.
The factory termination of the LC cable assemblies is very similar to order ceramic-based ferrules using the standard pot and polish processes with a few minor differences. The one-piece design of the connector minimizes production handling and helps to increase process yields when compared with other SFF and standard connector types. Because of the smaller diameter ferrule, the polishing times for an LC ferrule may be slightly lower than the standard 2.5-mm connectors, but the real production advantage is realized in teh increase number of connectors that can be polished at one time in a mass polisher. For the reasons mentioned above and because the process is familiar to most manufacturers, the LC connector may be considered one of the eaisest SFF connectors to factory terminate.
Field termination of the LC connector has typically been accomplished through the standard pot and polish techiques using the BTW connector. However, a pre-polished, crimp and cleave connector is also available. The LCQuick Light field-mountable BTW style connector made by Lucent Technologies is a one-piece design with a factory polished ferrule and an internal cleaved fiber stub. Unlike other pre-polished SFF connectors previously discussed, the LCQuick light secures the inserted field cleaved fiber to a factory polished stub by crimping or collapsing the metallic entry tube onto the buffered portion. This is accomplished by using a special crimp tool that is designed not to damage the fibers. However, light is designed specifically for use in protected environments such as cabinets and wall outlets and has no provision for outer jacket or Kevlar protection.
connections allow higher density applications based on its smaller
diameter. The LC connection, commonly referred to as Lucent Connection,
Little Connector or Local Connector, is commonly used today for uplink
modules and other devices. This connector is a "snap” type, has a
ferrule diameter of 1.25mm and defined by IEC 61754-20. We offer LC
fiber cables and lc connector patch cable single mode
December 18, 2014
Offering considerable improvements from previous FC speeds, 16 Gbps FC uses 64b/66b encoding, retimers in modules, and transmitter training. Doubling the throughput of 8 Gbps to 1,600 Mbps, it uses 64b/66b encoding to increase the efficiency of the link. 16 Gbps FC links also use retimers in the optical modules to improve link performance characteristics, and electronic dispersion compensation and transmitter training to improve backplane links. The combination of these technologies enables the 16 Gbps FC to provide some of the highest throughput density in the industry, making data transfers smoother, quicker, and cost-efficient.
Although 16 Gbps FC doubles the throughput of 8 Gbps FC to 1600MBps, the line rate of the signals only increases to 14.025 Gbps because of a more efficient encoding scheme. Like 10 Gbps FC and 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), 16 Gbps FC uses 64b/66b encoding, that is 97% efficient, compared to 8b/10b encoding, that is only 80% efficient. If 8b/10b encoding was used for 16 Gbps FC, the line rate would have been 17 Gbps and the quality of links would be a significant challenge because of higher distortion and attenuation at higher speeds. By using 64b/66b encoding, 16 Gbps FC improves the performance of the link with minimal increase in cost.
To remain backward compatible with previous Fiber Channel speeds, the Fiber Channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) must support both 8b/10b encoders and 64b/66b encoders.
As seen in Figure 2-1, a Fiber Channel ASIC that is connected to an SFP+ module has a coupler that connects to each encoder. The speed-dependent switch directs the data stream toward the appropriate encoder depending on the selected speed. During speed negotiation, the two ends of the link determine the highest supported speed that both ports support.
The second technique that 16 Gbps FC uses to improve link performance is the use of retimers or Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) circuitry in the SFP+ modules. The most significant challenge of standardizing a high-speed serial link is developing a link budget that manages the jitter of a link. Jitter is the variation in the bit width of a signal due to various factors, and retimers elliminate most of the jitter in a link. By placing a retimer in the optical modules, link characteristics are improved so that the links can be extended for optical fiber distances of 100 meters on OM3 fiber. The cost and size of retimers has decreased significantly so that they can now be intergrated into the modules for minimal cost.
The 16 Gbps FC multimode links were designed to meet the distance requirements of the majority of data centers. Table 2-2 shows the supported link distances over multimode and single-mode fiber 16 Gbps FC was optimized for OM3 fiber and supports 100 meters. With the standardization of OM4 fiber, Fiber Channel has standardized the supported link distances over OM4 fiber, and 16 Gbps FC can support 125 meters. If a 16 Gbps FC link needs to go farther than these distances, a single-mode link can be used that supports distances up to 10 kilometers. This wide range of supported link distances enables 16 Gbps FC to work in a wide range of environments.
Another important feature of 16 Gbps FC is that it uses transmitter training for backplane links. Transmitter training is an interactive process between the electrical transmitter and receiver that tunes lanes for optimal performance. The 16 Gbps FC references the IEEE standards for 10GBASE-KR, which is known as Backplane Ethernet, for the fundamental technology to increase lane performance. The main difference between the two standards is that 16 Gbps FC backplanes run 40% faster than 10GBASE-KR backplanes for increased performance.
Fiberstore introduces it’s new OM4 Laser-Optimized Multimode Fiber (LOMMF) "Aqua” cables, for use with 40/100Gb Ethernet applications. These new technology, 50/125um, LC/LC Fiber Optic cables, provide nearly three times the bandwidth over conventional 62.5um multimode fiber, with performance rivaling that of Singlemode cable, at a much reduced cost. LOMMF cable allows 40/100Gb serial transmission over extended distances in the 850nm wavelength window, where low-cost Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) enable a cost-effective, high-bandwidth solution. OM4 fiber optic patch cord is ideally suited for LAN’s, SAN’s, and high-speed parallel interconnects for head-ends, central offices, and data centers. Tripp Lite warrants this product to be free from defects in material and workmanship for Life. Now the following is the OM4 fiber from Fiberstore.
OM4 fiber cable lc lc multimode feature an extremely high bandwidth–4700MHz*km, more than any other mode. They support 10GB to 550 meters and 100GB to 125 meters. These cables are suitable for high-throughput applications, such as data storage. These cables are fully (backwards) compatible with 50/125 equipment as well as with 10 gigabit Ethernet applications. These connectors utilize a UPC (Ultra Physical Contact) polish which provides a better surface finish with less back reflection. With the OM4 cables, you can use longer lengths than OM3 cables while still having an excellent connection.
We offer a huge selection of single and multimode patch cords for multiple applications: mechanical use, short in-office runs, or longer runs between and within buildings, or even underground. Gel-free options are available for less mess, and Bend Insensitive cables for minimizing bend loss, which can be difficult to locate and resolve.Article Source: http://www.cables-solutions.com/overview-of-16-gbps-fiber-channels.html
December 17, 2014
By mid-1999 the most widely known representative of the pilot high-density connectors was the LC connector (link control) developed by Lucent Technologies in 1997 (and by other sources in 1996). This connector is produced in both single-mode and multimode versions. It uses a ceramic ferrule with a reduced diameter of 1.25 mm and a plastic housing equipped with an external lever-type latch to fit in a coupler (Fig.4.30). The connector is produced in both simplex and duplex options.
According to existing and prospective editions of SCS standards, the optical connector designers guarantee up to 500 cycles of connections and disconnections without deterioration of loss coefficients. This is accomplished by using ceramic ferrules and by the push-pull principle of connecting the plug enables its installation on a buffered fiber (0.9mm) and on fiber patch cords in 2.4-mm loose tubes. The LC plug can be installed in field conditions on 900-mm fiber, but it can only be fabric-bonded on cables in 2.4-mm loose tubes when manufacturing patch cords because of its small dimensions.
The basic characteristics of LC connector are listed in Table.4.13.
Another version of this connector is the MU connector by NTT. This product can be considered a compact variant of the SC connector. Similar to the previous version, the MU connector has a housing with an internal latch (based on the push-pull principle). It is approximately half the size of the SC connector due to the decreased diameter of the ferrule and the miniaturization of other components. Both simplex and duplex options of the connector are commercially available.
SC fiber optic patch cable is one of the earliest stype and one of the most commonly used fiber optic cable, it is convenient to use and cost saving, SC fiber optic patch cord is widely uesed in fiber optic networks. SC fiber patch cable is with zirconia sleeve and plastic housing. Now following we recommened you some sc connector patch cords from our store.
This SC to SC fiber patch cord features 62.5/125 micron zip cord construction with two SC connectors on each end. The cable features 1.8 mm total cable width and 62.5 micron multi-mode width which is ideal for most applications including fast data networks, media extension, and other projects that require accurate, high-bandwidth signal transfers.
The sc apc to sc upc single mode 9 125 simplex fiber optic patch cord cable is terminated with one LC (male) connector and one SC (male) connector, to provide the necessary connection between fiber networking devices for high-speed, long distance networks.
Ensuring optimal data transfers and network stability, 50/125-micron cables offer nearly three times the bandwidth of 62.5/125-micron cables, so your data will be transferred at higher rates over longer distances.
We supply fiber optic patch cord , fiber optic patch cable , LC,SC/APC,ST, E2000/APC,MU, VF45,FC, MT-RJ, SC, MPO, Volition,MTP, FC/APC, ST/APC, LC/APC, E2000, DIN, D4, SMA,LSZH,Riser,Plenum,OFNR,OFNP,simplex, duplex,single mode,9/125,SM, multimode,MM, 50/125, 62.5/125.Article Source: http://www.fiber-optic-components.com/decreased-diameter-ferrules.html
December 16, 2014
One of the more popular styles of fiber-optic connectors is the small form factor (SFF) style of connector. SFF connectors allow more fiber optic terminations in the same amount of space over their standard-sized counterparts. The two most popular are the mechanical transfer registered jack (MT-RJ or MTRJ), designed by AMP, and the Local Connector (LC), designed by Lucent.
The MT-RJ fiber optic connector was the first small form factor fiber optic connector to see widespread use. It is one-third the size of the SC and ST connectors it msot often replaces. It had the following benefits:
● Small size
● TX and RX strands in one connector
● Keyed for single polarity
● Pre-terminated ends that require no polishing or epoxy
● Easy to use
Local Connector is a newer style of SFF fiber optic connector that is overtaking MT-RJ as fiber optic connector. It is especially popular for use which Fiber Channel adapters and Gigabit Ethernet adapters. It has similar advantages to MT-RJ and other SFF-type connectors but is easier to terminate. It uses a ceramic insert as standard-sized fiber-optic connectors do. Figure 1.21 shows an example of the LC connector. Mentioned fiber optic connector, we know fiber optic patch cords, a fiber optic patch cord is constructed from a core with a high refractive index, surrounded by a coating with a low refractive index that is surrounded by a protective jacket. Transparency of the core permits transmission of optic signals with little loss over great distances. The coating’s low refractive index reflects light back into the core, minimizing signal loss. The protective jacket minimizes physical damage to the core and coating.
Connector design standards include FC, SC, ST, LC, MTRJ, MPO, MU, SMA, FDDI, E2000, DIN4, and D4. Cables are classified by the connectors on either end of the cable; some of the most common cable configurations include FC-FC, FC-SC, FC-LC, FC-ST, SC-SC, and SC-ST.
Lc to lc fiber patch cord is used to send high-speed data transmissions throughout your network. LC/LC fiber optic cables connect two components with fiber optic connectors. A light signal is transmitted so there is no outside electrical interference. Our SC fiber optic cable is 100% optically tested for maximum performance. We have all lengths and connectors available.
Multimode LC/LC fiber optic patch cable send multiple light signals. They are 62.5/125µ. Common connectors are ST, LC, SC and MTRJ. Our 62.5/125µ LC/LC multi-mode fiber cables can support gigabit ethernet over distances up to 275 meters.
Cable Type Summary
Fiber optic patch cables are used for linking the equipment and components ,we have fiber patch cords with different fiber connector types,our low insertion loss and low back reflection .Axen Technologies fiber patch cable is widely applied in Telecommunication Networks ,Gigabit Ethernet and Premise Installations.
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